Conventional film-forming amines (FFAs) form a dangerous barrier on top of the oxide layer. What appears to be a super hydrophobic barrier is actually a trapping of inorganic contaminants between the film and base metal. As a result, under deposit corrosion, pitting, hydrogen evolution, and embrittlement occur.
Conventional film-forming amines (FFAs) require the use of a neutralizing amine (MOPA, cyclohexylamine, etc.) for solubility issues. In result, a dangerous lack of flexibility and catch 22 exists: dose too little product and nothing survives the cycle heat and pressure for protection, dose too much and a list of problems occur such as waxy deposits & blockages, pH issues, and the steam quality being pushed out of OEM compliance.
Experimental work done by a leading international cycle chemistry authority has shown fouling of resin and polisher media. With some FFAs, the resin was irresversibly fouled while others were unable to be solubilized and diluted to pass through the resin.
Moreover, the highly-reactive functionality of a conventional FFA promotes a reaction with iron and itself, resulting in increased oxide transport and depassivation of metal. This is often sold as a "cleaning effect". Treatment of cycles with moderate to high deposit weight density also becomes irresponsible.
Conventional film-forming amines (FFAs) have a dangerous lack of flexibility. A catch 22 exists: dose too little product and nothing survives the cycle heat and pressure for protection, dose too much and a list of problems occur such as waxy deposits & blockages, pH issues, and the steam quality being pushed out of OEM compliance.
Thermal degradation of the FFA in tandem with an attack of the under architecture of the film from inorganic contaminants cause a release of the film. This released emulsion-like material reacts with iron to form "gunk" balls that are carried throughout the cycle.
Thermal degradation occurs causing high cation conductivities well above the OEM steam quality limits. Often this is compensated for by reducing dosage, thus reducing possible "protection".
Products are often hazardous for handling and dangerous to the environment. The products as supplied are often corrosive and their degradation products are more than often toxic to the aquatic environment.
The non-selective & highly reactive nature of film-forming amines results in the formation of an organic film on all substrates (excluding Teflon). As a result, the sensitivty of online instrumentation decreases.
Often touted as a one-point dosage solution for pH and metal protection, convential FFAs are required to use a neutralizing amine to keep the FFA dissolved. Once dosed into the cycle, the difference in volality causes the neutralizing amine to partition in the vapor whilst the FFA is left behind and forms an emulsion.