Thermal instability of organics treatment chemicals and the consequences, has for decades, rightfully and for good reason, been a controversial point of discussion. The pyrolysis, hydration and subsequent degradation of many organic treatment additives results in pollution of the steam water cycle with acidic degradation products, typically organic acids like acetic, formic and carbon dioxide, to name but a few.
New environmental regulations have directly and irreversibly affected a change in normal operational practice. High pressure units that typically used to operate base load, are now seeing changes in operation that include transient load, peaking operation, stop starts, air-in-leakage, cold and wet layups and so on. Changes in operational status of many high pressure utilities has increased the challenges placed upon conventional chemistries to protect metal, especially in the critical 2-phase flow-assisted corrosion (FAC) locations.
With the above framing a new set of expectations, recent history has seen a paradigm shift to now favorably evaluate the application of “organics” including neutralizing and film forming amines to help protect assets, to buffer the critical 2-phase locations and liquid films.
Unfortunately, thermal instability, pyrolysis and hydration of organics, acidic degradation products, deviations in CACE and non compliance, was wrong 30 years ago and it remains wrong to this day.
There has been much published work showing improved resilience to flow-assisted corrosion (FAC) by increasing the pH of the liquid film 2-phase locations using organics (different neutralizing amines), but the international and OEM standards for CACE remain firm, typically at < 0.2 uS/cm.
How does one increase pH of the liquid film 2-phase locations and ensure metal protection but equally allow significant deviations from published international standards (see section on Full OEM Compliance)
Organic film forming product reactions and thermal degradation in addition to acidic degradation products of neutralizing and alkalizing amines are all evidenced as being highly steam volatile. This high volatile characteristic will allow these acids to typically accumulate in the saturated steam path, turbine PTZ and critical liquid film locations resulting in significantly elevated CACE and non-compliance.
Anodamine is field-tested up to 4500 psi / 310 bar and 1051°F / 566°C on many high pressure boilers ranging from sub-critical drum units through to super critical once through generators, the latter delivering an operational CACE of approx. 0.08 uS/cm whilst maintaining a routine dosage of 1 ppm proportional to feed water flow.